The younger brother of the legendary modernist painter, Mene Modigliani was one of Italy's earliest socialist and union leaders to be elected to Parliament, and one of a group of Jewish intellectuals whose influence from 1860-1920 was pivotal to the formation of the State of Italy.
The first Jewish judge in Germany and an advocate of the emancipation of the Jews in Germany.
Leading Italian Jewish composer of the early Baroque period and a court musician of the Gonzaga rulers of Mantua, his unique contribution to Jewish liturgical music was his collection of synagogue motets.
Publisher of six major books of poetry in Yiddish including the children’s poems for which is she best known, as well as fiction, plays and essays, Molodowsky was a leading figure in the Yiddish literary world in Poland and later in America.
NAHUM GOLDMANN (1894-1982)
Prominent Jewish leader and Zionist movement, Goldmann was one of the founders of the World Jewish Congress, president of the World Zionist Organization, and one of the architects of the reparations agreement with Germany.
SHOLEM ALEICHEM (1859-1916, b. Sholem Rabinowitz)
Yiddish author and humorist, his Yiddish writings are one of the extraordinary achievements of modern literature. Sketches of shtetl life from Tevye's Daughters formed the basis of the stage/film musical, Fiddler on the Roof.
S. ANSKY (Solomon Zainwil Rapoport; 1863-1920)
Best known for his play The Dybbuk, the famous Yiddish writer and dramatist S. Ansky was a poet, socialist activist, emergency aid worker, ethnographer, and builder of modern Jewish culture.
RASHI (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaki, 1040-1105)
One of the greatest Jewish scholars and commentators of all times, more usually referred to by the acronym Rashi, he wrote extensive commentaries on the entire Hebrew Bible and Babylonian Talmud.
  SAMUEL HA-NAGID (993-1055)
One of the most interesting personalities of the Spanish Middle Ages, Jewish scholar and poet Samuel ha-Nagid is known as the father of medieval Jewish secular poetry. Samuel was also a shrewd statesman who served the Muslim leaders with great success.
DONA GRACIA of the HOUSE of NASI (late 15th c.)
Businesswoman and philanthropist Dona Gracia Mendes, born into a wealthy family that escaped the Inquisition in Portugal in the late 15th century, crossed Europe and settled in Constantinope. Throughout her life, she was known for her generosity and her devotion to Judaism and her fellow Jews.
NAHMAN of BRATSLAV (1772-1810)
Nahman of Bratslav lived during the height of the Hasidic movement in Eastern Europe. At the peak of his short life he was the zaddik of the town of Bratslav. He is widely known for his Tales, which are both literary masterpieces and as profound meditations.
REBECCA GRATZ (1781-1869)
As the founder and secretary of Philadelphia's earliest women's philanthropic organizations, Rebecca Gratz helped define a new identity for American women. She was reputed to have been the model for Rebecca in Walter Scott's novel Ivanhoe.
ELSE LASKER SCHULER (early 20th c.)
The poet, writer, and artist Else Lasker-Schuler was an influential member of the Jewish artistic and intellectual community that emerged in Berlin in the first years of the 20th century.
Rabbi, scholar, printer and diplomat, Menasseh ben Israel of Amsterdam was one of the most influential personalities in modern Jewish history.
GLüCKEL of HAMELN (1646-1724)
The beautifully-written memoirs of Glikl bas Judah Leib, mother of 14, businesswoman and trader, are an invaluable document about Jewish life in 17th-18th century Europe.
Bezalel ben Ur
Yohanah ben Zakkai



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