mid-winter holiday of Hanukkah, which begins on the 25th of Kislev, is an
ancient religious-national holiday which celebrates the victory of the Maccabees
(a family from the priestly tribe) in 164 BCE over the Seleucid Greeks and
their cruel king Antiochus Epiphanes. A candelabrum is lit for eight nights,
in celebration of the Maccabees' rededication of the defiled Holy Temple,
and in celebration of freedom.
story of this Jewish uprising against foreign oppression and the liberation
and rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem is told in the apocryphal
Book of Maccabees. "And there upon your children came into the shrine
of your house... and did light lamps in your holy courts, and appointed
these eight days to be kept with praise and thanksgiving...and we thank
your great name" (I Maccabees 4:49).
of the Lamp
of the Talmud embellish the historical reason for the festival with the story
of the pure oil found in the Temple; though sufficient for only day only,
this oil miraculously burned for eight days until new supplies could be prepared.
In commemoration of this miraculous event, a special Hanukkah lamp with eight
lights is lit each night of the holiday, beginning with one on the first eve
and adding one light each succeeding night. Hanukkah is also known as Hag
(Festival of Lights).
A debate takes place
in the Mishnah in which the House of Shammai promotes lighting eight lights
the first night, and reducing one light each night, while the House of Hillel
promotes the custom of lighting one light the first night, and adding a light
each night. The latter custom was adopted, according to the principle, "One
adds to holiness, and does not diminish it."
focusing on the military aspect of the festival, the rabbis chose to emphasize
the survival of religious values in the face of pagan and idolatrous opposition.
In modern times, especially in the State of Israel, the opposite tendency
can be noted.
night the Hanukkah lamp (hanukkiah) is lit, increasing a light each
night. On the first night, three blessings are recited. On the second and
subsequent nights only the first two blessings are recited. On Sabbath eve,
the Hanukkah candles are lit before the Shabbat candles.
In modern Hebrew the eight-branched menorah is known as a hanukkiah,
so as to differentiate it from the 6-branched candelabrum in the Temple,
which was known as a menorah. A ninth socket in the hanukkiah holds
a server (shamash), which is used to light the other candles or oil
blessings said when lighting the candles:
atah Adonai eloheinu melekh ha'olam, asher kid-shanu be'mizvotav
ve'zivanu le-hadlik ner shel Hanukkah.
(Praised are You, Sovereign of the Universe, who has sanctified
us with Your mitzvot and has commanded us to kindle light for
atah Adonai eloheinu melekh ha'olam, she'asah nisim la'avotenu
bayamin ha-hem bazman ha-zeh.
(Praised are You, Sovereign of the Universe, who performed miracles
for our ancestors, in those days, at this time.)
atah Adonai eloheinu melekh ha'olam, she'hecheyanu v'kiymanu
v'higiyanu lazman ha-zeh.
(Praised are You, Sovereign of the Universe, for granting us
life, for sustaining us, and for enabling us to reach this day.)
popular Hanukkah game is the spinning of a top (dreidl in Yiddish,
sevivon in Hebrew) with four sides, on each side of which are the
four Hebrew letters nun, gimmel, heh, shin (acrostic for Nes gadol
haya sham A great miracle happened there).
the last letter is a peh instead of a shin, so that the acronym
stands for Nes gadol naya poh (A great miracle happened here). If
the top falls on nun, the player takes nothing from the pot (of nuts,
raisins, or coins); if it falls on the gimel, s/he takes the whole
pot; if it falls on hay the player takes half; and if it falls on
the shin (or peh in Israel) s/he must add to the pot.
the dedication theme of the festival (Hanukkah literally
means dedication in Hebrew), is also customary to affix a mezuzah
to a doorpost in the home that has yet to receive one. The
mezuzah is affixed to the right side of the doorpost of Jewish
homes in accordance with the Biblical injunction: "Inscribe them
on the doorposts of your house and on your gates" (Deuteronomy 6:9;
11:20). The mezuzah is written on a rectangular piece of
parchment by a trained scribe. On one side are the verses of Deuteronomy
6:4-9; 11:13-21; on the reverse side is written the divine name
Shaddai (Almighty). The parchment is rolled up and inserted in a
case, with the letters Shaddai exposed at an opening. Mezuzah
cases vary in size, material and style.
Latkes, fried in oil
as a reminder of the miracle of the oil (latkes is Yiddish for fried
pancakes; known in Hebrew as levivot); dishes
made with honey and fruit (such as tsimmes
potatoes with carrots, prunes and honey. In
Israel it is customary to serve jelly donuts (sufganiot).
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Jacobs, Louis. The Book of Jewish Practice (Behrman House, 1987)
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Klagsbrun, Francine. Jewish Days: A Book of Jewish Life and Culture
around the Year (Farrar Straus Giroux, 1996).
Knobel, Peter. Gates of the Seasons: A Guide to the Jewish Year.
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(Adama Books, 1985).
Schauss, Hayyim. The Jewish Festivals: A Guide to their History and
Observance (Schocken Books, 1996).
Strassfeld, Michael. The Jewish Holidays: A Guide and Commentary
(Harper & Row, 1985).
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Renewal (Beacon Press, 1990).
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